Affirmative Actions in Postcolonial Latin America: A

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Lake Titicaca rests in the middle of the Altiplano Region of the Central Andes on the border between Peru and Bolivia. Urban sprawl is visible around the major cities and towns and along the Panamerican highway that runs north–south through the center of the country, but there are vast open spaces in the more rural areas. The station is continually conducting rainforest research and, as the second largest conservation organization in Ecuador, is involved in an array of sustainable development and forest protection projects.

Archaeological Investigations on the Island of La Plata,

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While the Ministry of Education is training teachers to teach better, Fundacyt is teaching students and professors how to conduct research. TM, ®, Copyright © 2008 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved. 1496: The Spanish found Santo Domingo in the island of Hispaniola, the first Spanish town in the Americas 1500: About 65 million Native Americans live in Central and Latin America, of which 25 million in Mexico 1510: Bartolome` de las Casas, a member of the Ovaldo expedition, becomes the first priest to be ordained in the New World 1513: Francisco Pizarro lands in Panama and joins Vasco Nunez de Balboa's expedition across the Isthmus of Panama, becoming the first European to see the Pacific Ocean Nov 1519: Hernan Cortez reaches the capital of the Aztec empire, Tenochtitlan, and captures the emperor, Montezuma 1520: Ferdinand Magellan sails the Straits of Magellan, the first European to see the Tierra del Fuego 1526: The Spaniards (Rodrigo de Bastidas) establish their second settlement in South America, Santa Marta (Colombia) 1532: Vasco de Quiroga founds the hospital of Santa Fe in Ciudad de Mexico, a utopian community 1535: Spain establishes the viceroyalty of Nueva Espana (Mexico, Arizona, Texas, California) with governor Antonio de Mendoza (that relieves Cortes of all power) and capital in Tenochtitlan that is renamed Ciudad de Mexico 1538: A civil war erupts between followers of Almagro and followers of Pizarro, won by the latter 1542: Bartolome` de las Casas frames new laws that are approved by the Spanish king to protect the natives from exploitation by the Spanish colonists/encomenderos, but they are largely ignored 1542: Francisco de Montejo the Young (son of the Elder) conquers most of Yucatan for Spain and founds a new capital, Merida 1546: Gonzalo Pizarro leads an insurrection of encomenderos and defeats and kills Nunez, the viceroy of Peru Mar 1549: Portugal appoints the first governor of Brazil, Thome de Sousa, who founds the capital of Salvador/Bahia, and arrives with 1,000 colonists and six Jesuits, including Manoel de Nobrega 1550: Antonio de Mendoza is succeeded as viceroy of Mexico by Luis de Velasco, who frees thousands of "Indians" 1551: Spanish colonists from Peru found Santiago del Estero, the first permanent European settlement in Argentina 1552: Bartolome` de las Casas's "Brevisima Relacion de la Destruycion de las Indias" is published in Europe, accusing Spain of having killed 12 million "Indians" since 1492 TM, ®, Copyright © 2008 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved. 1555: Portuguese sailors transmit smallpox to Brazil, that exterminates the Indios of the coast 1558: Portugal appoints the second governor of Brazil, Mem de Sa 1561: Colonial trade is restricted to two convoys of privately-owned ships a year, leaving from Sevilla or Cadiz, landing in Vera Cruz (Mexico) or Portobello (Panama) 1562: The Portuguese annihilate the rebellious Caete in Brazil, while smallpox and plague begin to spread among Indios of Brazil 1570: A tribunal of the Inquisition is instituted in Lima, Peru 1581: Brazil has a population of 57,000, of which 20,000 Portuguese, 18,000 Indios, 14,000 African slaves, and 5,000 mamelucos/mestizos 1596: Juan Ramirez de Velasco is appointed governor of Rio de la Plata with capital in Buenos Aires, having greatly improved the infrastructure of Argentina 1595: British explorer Walter Raleigh visits "Guiana" (the land of the confluence between the Amazon and the Orinoco, believed to hide the "El Dorado") 1605: Escaped black slaves of Brazil found the Quilombo dos Palmares, a confederacy ruled according to Central African customs 1606: In retaliation to their guerrilla warfare, Spain authorizes the slave trade of Araucanian Indios in Chile 1616: Dutch explorer Willem Corneliszoon Schouten finds the route around Cape Horn, a faster way to reach the Western coast of South America 1618: In Europe Spain fights against France, Holland and England in the "Thirty Years' War" 1621: Holland forms the Dutch West India Company to invade the Spanish and Portuguese colonies and takes control of Guyana (colonies of Demerara, Essequebo, and Berbice) 1631: To escape the Brazilian paulistas/mamelucos, the Jesuit missions of Paraguay/Argetina move inland and found Candelaria 1661: The colonists of Sao Luis revolt against the Jesuits who protect Brazilian Indios from slavery, causing the expulsion of Vieira 1680: Portuguese colonist Manuel de Lobo founds the colony of Sacramento inside Spanish territory of Uruguay, that competes with Buenos Aires via contraband 1693: Gold is discovered in Minas Geraes, Brazil, causing a gold rush in the West, and the center of power shifts from the Northeast towards Rio de Janeiro 1695: Gold is discovered in Minas Gerais, Brazil 1697: Spain cedes the western part of Hispaniola to France, renamed Saint-Dominique (Haiti) 1708: Britain sinks Spain's ship "San Jose" with its cargo of gold, silver and jewels 1711: War of the Mascates in Brazil, a rebellion by landholdes of Recife 1717: Spain establishes the vice-royalty of Nueva Granada (Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela) with capital in Bogota 1720: Antonio de Albuquerque is appointed first governor of Minas Gerais, Brazil 1722: The first newspaper of Spanish America is published in Mexico, the "Gaceta de Mexico" 1750: The treaty of Madrid recognizes Brazil's borders, and hands Sacramento to Spain in return for Jesuit missions (that have to be evacuated by the combined Spanish and Portuguese armies) 1752: Portugal creates the relacao (high court) of Rio de Janeiro, the second in the colony Feb 1763: France surrenders Canada (except for Saint Pierre and Miquelon), Dominica, Grenada, and eastern Louisiana to Britain, Spain surrenders western Louisiana to France and Florida to Britain 1764: Cuba is made a seat of governorship, ruling over Louisiana 1767: The Jesuits are expelled from the Spanish empire, ending their 57 missions that counted 113,716 Indios 1770: Buenos Aires has a population of 22,000, including 4,000 African slaves, thousands of free Africans, and an equal number of mestizos and Indios, which makes Buenos Aires the fourth largest Spanish city in South America (after Lima, Cuzco, Santiago) 1776: Spain creates the new viceroyalty of La Plata (Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia) under Pedro de Cevallos, with capital in Buenos Aires although most of the population lives in Bolivia, one fourth in Paraguay and only one fourth in Argentina and Uruguay 1777: Cevallos leads a Spanish incursion into Brazil that secures Sacramento (Uruguay) once and for all, and opens up Argentina to free trade, initiating Buenos Aires' boom 1797: Britain defeat Spain at Cape St Vincent, conquers Trinidad from Spain and cut off trade between Spain and Spanish America 1798: The population of Brazil is three million, of which 50% are black slaves 1800: There are 550,000 black slaves in Spanish America, notably 212,000 in Cuba, 88,000 each in Peru and Venezuela, and 70,000 in Colombia 1801: A constitution is adopted in Haiti, where there are virtually no whites left with Toussaint president for life 1804: Haiti (the former French colony of Saint-Dominique) declares independence from France, the second colony after the USA to become independent in America, and the first black slave revolt to triumph against the white masters, and Toussaint L'Ouverture's lieutenant Jean-Jacques Dessalines becomes its "emperor", but no European or American country recognizes it 1807: The population of Brazil is 3.5 millions, of which 2 millions are African slaves and 500,000 are Indios 1808: Dom Joao VI of Portugal moves the capital of Portugal to Rio in Brazil after Napoleon invades Portugal, and transforms Rio into one of the most modern capitals of Latin America 1810: Criollos establish anti-Spanish juntas in Venezuela (april, Simon Bolivar), Argentina (may, Mariano Moreno), Nueva Granada/Colombia (july, Simon Bolivar), Ecuador (august), Chile (september, Bernardo O'Higgins), 1810: Buenos Aires has 50,000 people, the largest in Argentina 1813: Argentina extends the vote to mestizos and indios, and outlaws torture, slavery and the Inquisition Dec 1815: Joao declares the "United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves" Jan 1816: The Congress of Tucuman (shunned by Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia) proclaims the independence of the United Provinces of The Rio de la Plata (Argentina) with capital in Buenos Aires but local caudillos in the countryside resist the central government TM, ®, Copyright © 2008 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.

Social Movements and State Power: Argentina, Brazil,

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It is a very private area, very quiet, pollution free, and ready for your new home, or if preferred, you can pick your own neighbors by subdividing it into 2, 3, or 4 sections with plenty of land, water, and privacy for everyone. In the southern part of the country, continuing on from Riobamba is Cuenca, Ecuador's third largest and perhaps most picturesque city, known for its artisan work and hand-woven rugs and woolens. She added great great value! shocking to me actually. Every house has a mailbox and a street address where one can receive mail and packages.

Huaorani of the Western Snippet

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Adding to Ecuador’s list of natural wonders are the incredible Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1000 km west of the mainland. Plane flights are not cheap for foreigners. True, China has become a key trading partner in Latin America during the last decade. There were 760,766 tourists who arrived in Ecuador in 2003, about 55% from other countries in South America. They are currently looking for volunteers that can spend at least 6 month ago.

Ecuador's Environmental Revolutions: Ecoimperialists,

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The elites have a concept of gente de bién ,or gente bién ("good people"; "people of good or proper background"). One area in which government does assert itself into the press is political advertising. Once you obtain permanent residency status in a country you will eventually be able to apply for citizenship, although the waiting period for citizenship varies from country to country. Uros used to say that they have black blood because they did not feel the cold.

Report on Trade Conditions in Ecuador

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S. realised they had discovered three new species. The PCE gradually gained in importance; in 1944 the PCE won fifteen out of eighty-five seats in the National Assembly and had one of its members appointed minister of education. In 2005 Ecuador's active armed forces personnel numbered 46,500, which were supported by 118,000 reservists. The unit reported an ash plume 3,000 feet meters high that trailed more than 12 miles to the northwest. (Left: The San Vicente de Pacaya church in San Vicente Pacaya, Guatemala is backdropped by smoke from the Pacaya volcano on Friday, May 28, 2010.) In Guatemala City, bulldozers scraped blackened streets while residents used shovels to clean cars and roofs.

Resumen De La Historia Del Ecuador Desde Su Orijen Hasta

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AVC activists also traveled to Colombia for training and participation in M-19 military operations. The Central District of the Gran Colombia, known as Cundinamarca or New Granada (modern Colombia) with its capital in Bogota, did not recognize the separation of the Southern District of the Gran Colombia, with its capital in Quito, from the Gran Colombian federation on May 13, 1830. It doesn’t hurt to learn a few greetings which will be sure to garner some smiles from the locals! EarthCam proudly documented the construction of U.

ECUADOR Country Studies: A brief, comprehensive study of

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About 90 percent of the islands are now set aside as protected wildlife reserves, some with access strictly limited to biologists and other researchers. Another interesting ethnographic museum is located a few miles north of Quito at the Mitad del Mundc monument on the Equator. I'm not sure what the biggest bills were in circulation but when I changed money I was usually given a huge stack of 5000 Sucre notes. S. city if the infrastructure failed: Total chaos! Large Wall Map of South America: If you are interested in the geography of South America, our large laminated map of South America might be just what you need.

Hacienda Pinsaqui: A Part of History

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Border disputes between Ecuador and its neighbor Peru began before the country was officially formed and hostilities didn’t end until the end of the 20th century. Uruguay ranks as one of South America's safest cities. In the 1920s and 1930s, the Chaco region attracted a large number of Mennonite immigrants from Canada and Russia who established successful farming operations mainly on the Paraguay side of the border and also extending into Argentina.

Flora of Puna: Botanical Resources on a Neotropical Island

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Strikes and disturbances by local fishermen in the Galápagos Islands sometimes affect the movement of tourists and prevent access to some sites. We hope that your volunteer experience with us will help you see the beauty of the country and see the warmth of the local communities that we grew up with! Various other state laws provide that the government can require all radio and television stations to broadcast official programs, news, and announcements.