By R. Franceys
Presents distinctive functional and technical recommendation meant to steer the choice, layout, development, and upkeep of on-site amenities for the elimination of human excreta. Addressed to engineers, sanitarians, clinical officials, and undertaking planners, the ebook concentrates on technical suggestions appropriate for owners development their very own latrines, even if in small groups, rural parts, or disadvantaged city settlements. information diversity from line drawings illustrating beneficial properties of layout and development, via a listing of the reason why more desirable sanitation may perhaps elicit unfavorable responses from clients, to directions for calculating the interior dimensions of a septic tank.
The e-book beneficial properties 11 chapters in 3 elements. Chapters within the first half introduce the principles of sanitary perform, describe the hyperlinks among excreta and disorder, and clarify the various social and cultural components that needs to be thought of on the making plans part. Chapters within the moment and so much broad half offer a close technical advisor to the layout, development, operation and upkeep of the entire major ideas for on-site sanitation. Chapters describe how the differing kinds of latrine paintings, talk about their relative benefits, and set out distinctive plans for the development of latrines and their elements. the ultimate half positive aspects 3 chapters at the making plans and improvement of on-site sanitation tasks, underscoring the necessity for a radical research of cultural in addition to layout beneficial properties.
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Extra info for A Guide to the Development of On-Site Sanitation
The pollution extends from the source in the direction of groundwater flow, with only limited vertical and horizontal dispersion. However, this does not apply to pollution in fissured ground, where the pollution may flow through the fissures for several hundred metres, often in an unpredictable direction. In most cases the commonly used figure of a minimum of 15 m between a pollution source and a downstream water abstraction point will be satisfactory. , to the side or upstream, the distance can be reduced provided that the groundwater is not abstracted at such a rate that its direction of flow is turned towards the abstraction point (Fig.
Allowing people to see (and handle) the contents of a pit as it is emptied is the strongest persuader for those concerned. All projects involving the construction of double-pit latrines must allow for a prolonged support programme. Householders need to be reminded to change pits at the right time and should be assisted in doing so. This assistance will probably have to be available for at least the first two pit changes to ensure that the complete cycle is covered. Pour-flush latrines The problems of flies, mosquitos and smell in simple pit latrines may be overcome simply and cheaply by the installation of a pan with a water seal in the defecating hole (Fig.
The pit design is the same as in the double-pit VIP latrine but the two toilets are replaced by a single waterseal pan connected to both pits by pipes. An inspection chamber containing a Y junction is normally built between the pits and the pan so that the excrete can be channeled into either pit (Fig. 15). Fig. 14. Minimum distance between a pit and the external wall of a house Fig. 15. Double-pit offset pour-flush latrine Before a new latrine is brought into service, the inspection chamber is opened and one of the pipes leading to the pits is stopped off (a brick, stone, mound of clay or block of wood is quite satisfactory).