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So far, then, happiness is seen to consist principally in (1) the pleasures attending our normal, particularly our intel­ lectual, activities; (2) tranquillity, which depends partly upon (a) external circumstances, (6) the feeling that we have been “consistent” in thought and action, (c) the consciousness that we have acted for the common weal; and (3) the pleasure which results from a knowledge of the happiness of others. What shall be said, then, with regard to Cumberland’s view of the Good in general?

Bichard Cumberland / 45 level with the vegetable world. ” As it is not clear—thus far, at any rate—in what terms Cumberland would have defined the Good, if he had been forced to be more exact, it becomes important to consider his treatment of happiness. ” Indeed, Cumberland occasionally uses the words interchangeably even in the same sentence. However, allowing for his careless use of language, with which we are already familiar, his theory seems to be that human happiness results largely from action, particularly from the exercise of one’s intellectual powers.

Another important difference is that Cum­ berland’s idea of the Good, from this point of view, includes perfection as well as preservation. Indeed, the emphasis is certainly to be laid upon perfection. Man is not merely a bundle of egoistic appetites, but a being essentially rational —a personality to be developed. But in Chap, v we have an example of the other set of passages, even more numerous, which might be cited as show­ ing that Cumberland’s ideal was that of ordinary Hedonism. “I proceed more fully to explain the common, which also I call the public good.

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