By J. Frank, M. Radermacher (auth.), James K. Koehler Ph. D. (eds.)
This quantity is a continuation of 2 previous books on complicated electron microscope strategies. the aim of this sequence has been to supply in intensity analyses of equipment that are thought of to be on the cutting edge of electron microscopic examine methods with functions within the organic sciences. The project of the current quantity is still that of a resource booklet for the examine practitioner or complex scholar, specifically one already good versed in uncomplicated electron optical tools. it's not intended to supply in troductory fabric, nor can this modest quantity wish to hide the complete spectrum of complicated expertise now on hand in electron microscopy. some time past decade, desktops have discovered their means into many study laboratories because of the big elevate in computing energy and stor age to be had at a modest fee. The ultrastructural sector has additionally benefited from this enlargement in a few methods in an effort to be illustrated during this quantity. 1/2 the contributions talk about applied sciences that both at once or in a roundabout way make huge use of machine methods.
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Additional resources for Advanced Techniques in Biological Electron Microscopy III
In the maximum entropy method, among all the solutions compatible with the underdetermined equation system, the solution with the smallest information content, or the maximum entropy, is selected. 's results seem to indicate, the maximum entropy reconstruction is distinguished favorably from the ART Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Nonperiodic Macromolecular Assemblies 25 reconstruction by a smaller amount of artifacts due to angular limitation. However, the great computational expense has thus far prevented a widespread use of this method.
1974; FRANK et ai. , 1986 b); the lateral views of the 40 S eukaryotic ribosomal subunit (BOUBLIK and HELLMAN 1978; FRANK et ai. 1981 b, 1982); and the top view of glutamine synthetase (VALENTINE et ai. 1968; FRANK et ai. 1978; see Figs. 4 and 5). , 1986). The azimuthal angles of the particles can be determined from an additional micrograph of the same specimen area at 0°, by employing rotational correlation techniques originally developed for the two-dimensional averaging of single particle projections (FRANK et ai.
As in other observations of an experimental quantity, the accuracy of estimating the sample mean is strongly enhanced if multiple measurements are available: the mean of each pixel is approximated by its average (5) The image P(Xi! Yk) resulting from averaging each pixel will be called average image. The signal-to-noise ratio of the average image (defined as the ratio standard deviation of signal: standard deviation of noise) improves with (FRANK et al. 1981 b). In order to interpret the averaged projection obtained by Eq.