By Keith W. Waldron
This booklet offers a accomplished and systematic reference at the complex biomass restoration and conversion strategies utilized in biorefineries. the 1st a part of the e-book experiences advancements in biorefining strategies, via a assessment of other varieties of biorefinery platform. the second one 1/2 the e-book discusses the wide variety of further price items from biorefineries, from biofuel to biolubricants and bioadhesives.
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Additional info for Advances in biorefineries: Biomass and waste supply chain exploitation
In times which increasingly value resource efficiency, waste has become a luxury. DEFRA, the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs in the UK, has estimated that businesses could save up to £23 billion by re-using resources more efficiently (DEFRA, 2012). In the EU, Council Directive 99/31/EC, better known as the Landfill Directive, will drastically reduce the amount of landfill space available as the amount of biodegradable waste sent to landfill in member countries by 2016 will have to reach 35% of the 1995 level.
Phase II biorefineries differ from phase I biorefineries by the number of outputs they can produce. A typical example of a phase II biorefinery is the production of starch, ethanol and lactic acid together with high fructose syrup, corn syrup, corn oil and corn meal from corn wet mil operations (EPA, 2011). , 2009). , supercritical CO2 extraction followed by biological transformation), in comparison to phase I and II biorefineries. They also allow for a higher number of valorized outputs since several constituents of the feedstock used can be treated separately.
Early research on renewable resources focused heavily on crops such as rapeseed, corn or sugar cane. However, the controversial competition between food and non-food uses of biomass had an negative effect on crop prices as well as on press feedback concerning biofuels (OECD, 2008). Other sources of biomass are now studied and waste is increasingly considered as another renewable feedstock for the production of bioderived chemicals, materials and fuels. In times which increasingly value resource efficiency, waste has become a luxury.