By Emilio Bombardieri, John Buscombe, Giovanni Lucignani, Otmar Schober
The diagnostic and healing achievements in radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear drugs instrumentation ? puppy, SPECT, MR, CT and their hypbrids PET-CT and SPECT-CT
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Additional resources for Advances in Nuclear Oncology:: Diagnosis and Therapy
15 Different key features are important hallmarks of angiogenesis in solid tumors. Cell surface tyrosine kinase receptors are closely linked to cancer progression. 18 The αvβ3 integrin is one prominent example of an adhesion molecule that can be targeted for both therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Finally, enzymes degrading the extracellular matrix are an integral part of tumor angiogenesis, including matrix metalloproteinases, cathepsins, or hyaluronidase. 19–23 For direct imaging of angiogenesis related molecules, various endothelial targets can be successfully visualized, including VEGF and the αvβ3 integrin (see above).
Katzenellenbogen JA, Welch MJ, Dehdashti F. The development of estrogen and progestin radiopharmaceuticals for imaging breast cancer. Anticancer Res 1997; 17: 1573–6. Dehdashti F, Picus J, Michalski JM et al. Positron tomographic assessment of androgen receptors in prostatic carcinoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2005; 32: 344–50. Manning G, Whyte DB, Martinez R, Hunter T, Sudarsanam S. The protein kinase complement of the human genome. Science 2002; 298: 1912–34. Baselga J, Arteaga CL. Critical update and emerging trends in epidermal growth factor receptor targeting in cancer.
Another factor responsible for the increased water content in neoplasms is the high quantity of interstitial fluids, that is, the cytotoxic intratumoral edema. Increase of water content is the explanation of CT hypodensity and the increase in T1 and T2 relaxation times on MRI (T1 hypointensity and T2 hyperintensity). Regressive events include the presence of cysts, necrotic and hemorrhagic areas, calcifications, and fatty degenerative areas. 1 Left hypothalamic astrocytoma typically showing a bright hyperintensity on T2 images (a, b), hypointensity on T1 images (c), and a hypointense signal on diffusion-weighted images (d), suggesting increased water molecule movement.