By Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber
This quantity is the 3rd of a collection of 7 relating to photovoltaics. sun cell-related applied sciences coated the following comprise: ribbon silicon; heterojunction crystalline silicon; wafer an identical crystalline silicon; and different complicated silicon sun telephone buildings and processes.
Semiconductors and Semimetals has extraordinary itself in the course of the cautious collection of famous authors, editors, and participants. initially well known because the "Willardson and Beer" sequence, it has succeeded in publishing quite a few landmark volumes and chapters. The sequence publishes well timed, hugely correct volumes meant for long term impression and reflecting the actually interdisciplinary nature of the sector. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals were and may stay of significant curiosity to physicists, chemists, fabrics scientists, and equipment engineers in academia, medical laboratories and glossy industry.
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Extra info for Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 3,
Thereby care has to be taken that the emitter on the front side is not attacked by the etch solution or the atmosphere containing reactive species. 4. 33) with wavelength λ and refractive index of the SiNx:H layer nSiN. 34) 9 For back-to-back POCl3 diffusion and inline diffusion, a weak P diffusion is also observed at the rear side, by transport of P atoms via the gas phase. 10 The notation SiNx:H is used, as the silicon nitride layers are not of stoichiometric composition and contain significant amounts of H.
2006b) and Solmi et al. (1996) is also indicated. 30) where ρ is the resistivity of the layer with thickness d. 31) with depth z. Typical values of Rsheet for P diffusions are 50–100 Ω/sq. Note that carrier mobility is a function of doping concentration, therefore also conductivity is a function of doping density. 1 Phosphorus diffusion gettering of impurities During P diffusion, SiO2 is formed at the wafer surface. For the formation of SiO2 Si, atoms have to leave their lattice sites, and a flux of Si interstitials Sii is generated.
At higher temperature, the contact is formed as first the PbO melts, wets, and etches the SiNx:H layer (B). The Ag particles with sizes of several μm sinter together and form a conductive film. Then a redox reaction between PbO and Si forms Pb (C). The liquid Pb starts to melt Ag (D), and the Ag/Pb melt reacts with Si, etching inverted pyramids locally into the c-Si surface (E). On cooling down Ag recrystallizes on (111)-Si planes, forming isolated contact points to the emitter (F). The recrystallized Ag points at the c-Si surface can either be in direct contact with the sintered Ag layer, or the glass layer isolates them from each other.