By Richard Folkson
Эта серьёзная книга посвящена альтернативным видам топлива и технологическим решениям в устройстве автомобилей для снижения негативного влияния на окружающую среду.
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Extra info for Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies for Improved Environmental Performance: Towards Zero Carbon Transportation
The EREV option, which enables lower storage capacity batteries to be used but requires both an electric motor and a fuel converter/generator (ICE assumed in this case), has a similar cost premium but is not encumbered by range compromise. A significant portion of the high cost premium of a hydrogen-fuelled vehicle, whether using fuel cells or ICEs (the latter vehicle powertrain variant is not shown in Fig. 2), is the cost of the hydrogen storage system. Estimates for the volume manufacture of a carbon-fibre wound pressure vessel required for 700 bar hydrogen storage range from the proposed target of 72000 (US$3000) (Eberle, 2006) to 710 000 (US$15 000) (Jackson, 2006) for systems capable of storing around 10 kg of hydrogen.
2 Market penetration of biodiesel 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 LPG L CT tur al bio gas me and tha ne Na L GT dro tr bio eated die sel ies Eb iod FA M Hy el l no tha Me ano l 0 Eth Alternative road transport fuels by energy (%) In the previous section it has been established that renewable liquid fuels are a potentially pragmatic route to de-carbonising transport because they provide evolutionary transition mechanisms for both the vehicle technology and fuel distribution infrastructure. These fuels are already making a significant contribution to transport energy supply.
7% of total road transport fuel consumption (IEA, 2010). The European Union (EU) dominated the production of biodiesel in 2009 with 54% of production, followed by the USA and Brazil with 13% and 9%, respectively (IEA, 2010). About 75% of EU biodiesel is made from rape seed feed stock, with 13% coming from soy bean, and 8% from palm oil (Haer, 2011). China and India produced 2% and 1% of the world’s biodiesel, respectively. The main market for biodiesel consumption is Europe, in particular Germany, which introduced the use of ‘pure’ biodiesel (B100) from rapeseed feedstock grown on fallow land in the 1990s.