Download Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup by Committee on Ground Water Cleanup Altern, National Research PDF

By Committee on Ground Water Cleanup Altern, National Research Council

There is approximately 300,000 waste websites within the usa the place flooring water and soil are infected. but contemporary stories query no matter if latest applied sciences can repair infected flooring water to ingesting water criteria, that is the target for many websites and the end result anticipated via the general public. How can the kingdom stability public future health, technological realities, and value while addressing flooring water cleanup? This new quantity deals particular conclusions, outlines study wishes, and recommends regulations which are technologically sound whereas nonetheless conserving healthiness and the surroundings. Authored through the head specialists from and academia, this quantity examines how the actual, chemical, and organic features of the subsurface setting, in addition to the homes of contaminants, complicate the cleanup job. It studies the restrictions of regular traditional pump-and-treat cleanup platforms, together with distinctive case reviews. It evaluates a number of cutting edge cleanup applied sciences and the boundaries to their complete implementation. It additionally offers particular innovations for regulations and practices in comparing illness websites, in determining remediation applied sciences, and in surroundings acceptable cleanup pursuits.

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For example, at one New Jersey site, a computer manufacturing company spent $10 million removing toxic solvents from ground water, but not long after the cleanup system was shut down the solvent concentrations in some locations returned to levels higher than before cleanup began (see Box 1-1). This company's effort and others like it have raised concern about whether the amount spent to clean up ground water is proportionate to the benefits society receives. Businesses and government agencies paying for the cleanups are calling for reconsideration of whether returning all contaminated ground water to drinking water standards is a realistic goal.

Environmental Protection Agency, R. S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory. In part because of the wide variation in contaminated sites and because the total number of sites is uncertain, estimating the total national costs of cleaning up contaminated ground water is extremely difficult. , 1991). , 1991), this represents a cost of $8,000 per household. , 1992, p. 38). Some contest the accuracy of such cost estimates because of the high level of uncer Copyright © National Academy of Sciences.

Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. html THE GROUND WATER CLEANUP CONTROVERSY 26 TABLE 1-1 The 25 Most Frequently Detected Ground Water Contaminants at Hazardous Waste Sites Rank Compound Common Sources 1 Trichloroethylene Dry cleaning; metal degreasing 2 Lead Gasoline (prior to 1975); mining; construction material (pipes); manufacturing 3 Tetrachloroethylene Dry cleaning; metal degreasing 4 Benzene Gasoline; manufacturing 5 Toluene Gasoline; manufacturing 6 Chromium Metal plating 7 Methylene chloride Degreasing; solvents; paint removal 8 Zinc Manufacturing; mining 9 1,1,1-Trichloroethane Metal and plastic cleaning 10 Arsenic Mining; manufacturing 11 Chloroform Solvents 12 1,1-Dichloroethane Degreasing; solvents 13 1,2-Dichloroethene, trans Transformation product of 1,1,1trichloroethane 14 Cadmium Mining; plating 15 Manganese Manufacturing; mining; occurs in nature as oxide 16 Copper Manufacturing; mining 17 1,1-Dichloroethene Manufacturing 18 Vinyl chloride Plastic and record manufacturing 19 Barium Manufacturing; energy production 20 1,2-Dichloroethane Metal degreasing; paint removal 21 Ethylbenzene Styrene and asphalt manufacturing; gasoline 22 Nickel Manufacturing; mining 23 Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Plastics manufacturing 24 Xylenes Solvents; gasoline Phenol Wood treating; medicines 25 NOTE: This ranking was generated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry using ground water data from the National Priorities List of sites to be cleaned up under CERCLA.

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