By Anastasios Tsonis

Textbook for brief undergraduate classes in atmospheric technological know-how, meteorology, physics or ordinary technology courses.

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Additional info for An Introduction to Atmospheric Thermodynamics

Sample text

Then from Dalton’s law it follows that the ﬁnal pressure in each container should be 914 mb. 4) √ If Boyle had observed pV = constant, what would the equation of state for an ideal gas be? In this case calculate the temperature of a sample of nitrogen which has a pressure of 800 mb and a specific volume of 1200 cm 3 g –1. How does this temperature differ from that estimated when the correct law pV = constant is observed? Can you explain the difference? 7) but with the new Boyle’s law, we have that p1 = p pV = T T √ p1 V.

E. e. η = 0) it dictates that dp = 0. As such a polytropic process pV η = constant reduces to an isobaric, to an isothermal, to an adiabatic, and to isochoric process for η = 0, 1, γ, and ∞, respectively. Having said this we must add that in the atmosphere over a rather wide range of motions the timescale for an air parcel (our system) needed to adjust to environmental changes of pressure, and to perform work, is short compared with the corresponding timescale of heat transfer. For example, above the boundary layer and outside the clouds the timescale of heat transfer is about two weeks whereas the timescale of displacements that aﬀect a parcel is of the order of hours to a day.

3 The work done by an external force on a system that is taken adiabatically from a reference state O or a reference state O to a state A. In this case the work done depends on the initial and final states, not on the particular path from an initial state to a final state. 4 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS O′ –W a A d′ A ad –WO ′ ad –W A O with its environment), then its energy remains the same (ΔU = 0). 2) where −W ad is the work done adiabatically by the external force on the system (+W ad is the work done by the system).