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By Pramod R. Bhave

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However, energy may be converted from one form to another. A flowing mass of a fluid may contain energy in different forms such as mechanical, thermal, and chemical. For water distribution networks, however, only the energy that is available and therefore useful is considered. Since other forms of energy cannot be used, if the available energy is converted to any other form, the energy is considered as lost. For example, in a flowing mass of water, part of the available energy may be converted into thermal energy due to internal friction.

1 D 5 10 68L Hazen-Williams .. 29A/2/. — R value is for L and D in meters and Q in cube meters per second. 2 Simple Pipe Flow Problems 45 Manning coefficient N are generally assumed to remain constant for a given pipe, the value of R remains constant for a given pipe and is independent of the discharge through it. However, for the Darcy-Weisbach formula, as the coefficient of friction/is a function of the Reynolds number, the value of the pipe resistance constant R of a pipe depends on the discharge through it.

16 INTRODUCTION Kinetic Energy The energy possessed by a fluid mass due to its velocity is termed kinetic energy and is equal to mass times V2/2. Thus, the kinetic energy possessed by a unit mass is V2/2. It can be easily seen that each of the above forms of the available energy per unit mass has the dimensions of FL/M or L2T~2 and units of N • m/kg or J/kg. These forms of energy are interchangeable and their sum constitutes the total energy E per unit mass of a fluid. 2 BERNOULLI'S THEOREM If the steady flow of a frictionless, incompressible fluid along a streamline is considered, the total energy of a unit fluid mass would remain the same.

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