By Lakshmi N. Reddi, American Society of Civil Engineers Task Committee on Animal Waste con
''Animal Waste Containment in Lagoons'' presents a complete view of the state of the art perform of animal waste containment and provides instructions for destiny study thoughts. Practitioners within the following disciplines: water assets, environmental, geotechnical, and agricultural engineering will locate this guide to be very valuable. issues lined contain: destiny of nitrogen compounds in animal waste lagoons; Seepage and shipping via anaerobic lagoon liners; Clogging of animal waste lagoon liners; comparing seepage losses and liner functionality at animal waste lagoons utilizing water stability tools; Use of coal combustion by-products as low permeability liners for manure garage amenities; and Air caliber matters linked to cattle construction
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Additional info for Animal waste containment in lagoons
19 43 Source: Adapted from Reed 1985. Note: ^Removal in three cell systems. sludge solids, bottom soils, and lagoon-liner materials; and subsurface infiltration. The removal of nitrogen from waste lagoons depends on various physicochemical and biological factors, such as pH, temperature, residence time of the waste, mixing of lagoon contents, presence or absence of oxygen, and the microbial ecology of the waste. Table 2-4 lists selected characteristics of four wastewater lagoons across the United States and the extent of nitrogen removal observed in these lagoons.
Nitrification in aerobic systems is mediated by gram-negative, aerobic, chemoautotrophic, rod-shaped bacteria. Seven genera of autotrophic nitrifiers are known, but bacteria belonging to the genera Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter are considered to be the predominant nitrifying organisms in nature. These organisms use ammonia or nitrite as their energy source, inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide or carbonates) as the carbon source for synthesis of cellular biomass, and molecular oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor.
As shown in Figure 2-1, the ultimate fate of nitrogen in waste lagoons is influenced by a variety of processes: volatilization; uptake by algae and plants; nitrification; denitrification; sludge deposition; adsorption onto FIGURE 2-1. Fate of Nitrogen in Animal Waste Lagoons. 15 FATE OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS TABLE 2-4. Selected Characteristics and Nitrogen Removal in the Case of Four Facultative Wastewater Lagoons Location Effluent Total Nitrite + Water Influent-N Nitrate %N Detention Temperature pH (mg/L) (mg/L) Removal* Time (days) (°C) Eudora, Kan.