By Professor C. J. Joachain, N. J. Kylstra, R. M. Potvliege

Filling the necessity for a publication bridging the impression of subject on X-ray radiation and the interplay of x-rays with plasmas, this monograph presents accomplished insurance of the subject. As such, it provides and explains such robust new X-ray assets as X-ray free-electron lasers, in addition to brief pulse interactions with solids, clusters, molecules, and plasmas, and X-ray subject interactions as a diagnostic instrument. both helpful for researchers and practitioners operating within the box "The improvement of lasers able to generating high-intensity pulses has opened a brand new quarter within the research of light-matter interactions. The corresponding laser fields are powerful adequate to compete with the Coulomb forces in controlling the dynamics of atomic platforms and provides upward thrust to multiphoton techniques. This booklet provides a unified account of this quickly constructing box of physics. the 1st half describes the elemental phenomena happening in excessive laser-atom interactions and provides the elemental theoretical framework to research them. the second one half incorporates a special dialogue of Floquet conception, the numerical integration of the wave equations and approximation equipment for the low- and high-frequency regimes. within the 3rd half, the most multiphoton tactics are mentioned: multiphoton ionization, excessive harmonic and attosecond pulse new release, and laser-assisted electron-atom collisions. aimed toward graduate scholars in atomic, molecular and optical physics, the ebook also will curiosity researchers engaged on laser interactions with matter"-- Read more... half I. uncomplicated suggestions: 1. High-intensity laser-atom physics; 2. thought of laser-atom interactions -- half II. Theoretical equipment: three. Perturbation idea; four. Floquet conception; five. Numerical integration of the wave equations; 6. The low-frequency regime; 7. The high-frequency regime -- half III. Multiphoton Atomic Physics: eight. Multiphoton ionization; nine. Harmonic iteration and attosecond pulses; 10. Laser-assisted electron-atom collisions

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Kienberger, C. , Nature 414, 509 (2001). R. Kienberger, E. Gouliemakis, M. , Nature 427, 817 (2004). G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. , Science 314, 443 (2006). M. Casu, C. Szymanowski, S. Hu and C. H. Keitel, J. Phys. B 33, L411 (2000). R. M. Potvliege, N. J. Kylstra and C. J. Joachain, J. Phys. B 33, L743 (2000). D. M. Gaudiosi, B. Reagan, T. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 203001 (2006). M. W. Walser, C. H. Keitel, A. Scrinzi and T. Brabec, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5082 (2000). N. J. Kylstra, R. M. Potvliege and C.

As a function of r, for a fixed time, the vector E traces a helix. If ξ = −1, the rotation of E as a function of time at a fixed point is counter-clockwise for an observer facing into the oncoming wave (looking into the direction −kˆ L ), while at a fixed time the helix is left-handed. This wave is said to be left-circularly polarized. Such a wave is also said to have positive helicity because it has a positive projection of angular momentum on the propagation direction kˆ L . If ξ = 1, the rotation of the vector E as a function of time at a fixed point in space is clockwise for an observer facing into the incoming wave and the helix is right-handed.

10) where k L is the propagation vector of the laser field, ϕ is a real constant phase and ω = kL c. 12) so that ˆ is perpendicular to k L and the wave is said to be transverse. 13) with the electric-field strength given by E0 = ωA0 . The quantity A0 , which we take to be positive, is the amplitude of the vector potential. Both the vector potential A and the electric field E are in the direction of the real unit vector ˆ , which is called the polarization vector. 10) is given by B(r, t) = E0 (kˆ L × ˆ ) cos(k L · r − ωt − ϕ).