By Wolfgang Demtröder
This advent to Atomic and Molecular Physics explains how our current version of atoms and molecules has been built during the last centuries either by means of many experimental discoveries and, from the theoretical facet, by means of the advent of quantum physics to the enough description of micro-particles. It illustrates the wave version of debris by way of many examples and exhibits the bounds of classical description. The interplay of electromagnetic radiation with atoms and molecules and its power for spectroscopy is printed in additional aspect and specifically lasers as smooth spectroscopic instruments are mentioned extra completely. Many examples and issues of ideas are provided to inspire readers to actively have interaction in experimentation.
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Extra resources for Atoms, Molecules and Photons: An Introduction to Atomic-, Molecular- and Quantum-Physics
Ulbricht, University of Göttingen) surfaces the tunnel current would result in surface charges that alter the potential and therefore the voltage between needle and surface. 22]. However, here it is not the tunnel current that is measured but the force between the atoms of the tip and those at the surface. 23]. 24]. A clean nickel surface at low temperatures was covered by a few Xenon atoms. With the atomic force microscope these atoms were picked up and transported to selected places on the surface, where they were released in such a way that the atoms formed the letters IBM (Fig.
Although he ﬁrst thought that these movements were caused by small living bacteria, he soon found out that the movement could also be observed for inorganic particles that are deﬁnitely not alive. The observation can be explained if one assumes that the particles are permanently hit by fast moving atoms or molecules coming from statistically distributed directions (Fig. 17). The visualization of Brownian motion is very impressive. It is possible to demonstrate it to a large auditorium when using cigarette smoke particles in air, illuminated by a laser beam and viewed through a microscope with a video camera.
There are several other methods that give similar information. With computer graphics one can produce nice pictures of such “atom images” on the screen, which may be impressive because they appear to give a magniﬁed picture of the microworld of atoms and molecules. However, one should always keep in mind that such pictures are produced due to the interaction of light or particles with atoms. Only if this interaction is fully understood can the interpretation of the images give a true model of atoms or molecules.