By Hoi-Jun Yoo, Chris van Hoof
Bio-Medical CMOS ICs offers readers with the elemental operation ideas and architectures in addition to the latest study result of low energy CMOS ICs specifically for bio-medical functions. The publication covers 3 elements: important sign Sensing and Processing from Neuronal sign, Electrode and Readout IC, ADC to Bio-Signal Processor brief Distance Bio-Medical physique Channel verbal exchange and instant verbal exchange Examples of Attachable, Wearable and Implantable Bio-Medical IC and Its purposes Novel sensing, processing and verbal exchange tools also are brought and analyzed, besides the fundamentals of making plans and designing healthcare platforms that may shift healthcare paradigm from “reactive” ailment administration to “proactive and preemptive” future health administration. Bio-Medical CMOS ICs is an invaluable ebook for engineers, researchers and scholars within the box of CMOS technology.
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Additional info for Bio-Medical CMOS ICs
These anions have tended to loose their hydration sphere and consequently are in close contact with the electrode. As they are negative ions adsorbed onto a negative electrode surface, electrostatic forces can not be responsible. Some force specific to the ion (rather than its electrical charge) must be responsible, hence the use of the term “Specific Adsorption” to describe this phenomenon. Van der Waals or chemical forces are thought to be responsible . In order to understand some aspects of the double layer capacitance, it is good to consider the basic equation for a parallel plate capacitor.
From a biocompatibility point of view one requires a noble (hence large impedance) electrode system, whereas from an electrical performance point of view one requires a low impedance system. A compromise is achieved by using such polarizable electrode materials and roughening the surface of the electrode, thus decreasing the large interface impedance. Roughening the electrode surface gives rise to a significant increase in the interface capacitance, thus increasing further the time constant (T↑= Cdl↑RCT ) and ensuring that the voltage or current response is even more dominated by the highly desirable capacitive processes while decreasing the interface impedance.
Schwan proposed a “Limit Current of Linearity”, iL . 8). Schwan and others [54, 105, 125, 128] have observed that this empirical relationship is valid for many electrode systems over wide frequency ranges The presence of β (a parameter describing the frequency dependence of the linear interface impedance) in a relationship describing the non-linearity of the system was found most intriguing. The solution to this mystery is quite simple when it is approached from the right direction. 8) which they observe under linear, small-signal conditions and over the limited 50 E.