By Ronald M. Atlas, Jim C. Philp
A desirable exam of study and its real-world software. • offers worldwide standpoint in insurance of a large variety of bioremediation applied sciences together with bioinjection, bioaugmentation, and phytoremediation • Examines useful examples of bioremediation software, together with appropriate case stories • Discusses the interactions of felony, medical, and engineering ideas at the back of use of bioremediation for cleanup of infected land and aquifers
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Dioxygenases can insert two hydroxyl groups into the aromatic ring and precipitate the spontaneous elimination of the nitro group from a variety of nitroaromatic compounds. Reduction of the nitro group to the corresponding hydroxylamine is the initial reaction in the metabolism of nitrobenzene, 4nitrotoluene, and 4-nitrobenzoate. These reactions have potential applications for the biodegradation of environmental contaminants. Dioxins Dioxins are among the most toxic chemicals known. Dioxin is a general term that describes a group of hundreds of chemicals that are highly persistent in the environment and also bioaccumulate rather efficiently.
1,2,3,6,7,8-HexaCDDc1 Peri-dechlorination pathway 1,2,3,4,6,7$-HeptaCDD CI clq)$Jcl CI c1 Cl + 1-monoCDD ci 1,2,3,4,7,8-HexaCDD I ,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-0ctaCDD 1,2,3,4,6,7-HexaCDD51 5 + w N dl CI C' ... I ... i dl 1,2,3,4,6,8-HexaCDD 1,2,3,4,6,7,9-HeptaCDD .. : ... , i i. i . .. ... :. , i '4 4 ............ 'i. 2-monoCDD ........... 18 Branched pathway of PCDD microbial dechlorination. Dechlorination caused by activity of nonmethanogenic, non-spore-forming microbes (broad arrows) and intermediates found in trace concentrations (14) (braces) are inmcated.
Interestingly, microbial transformation of some organic contaminants such as the industrial solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) does not occur in oxygenated environments (69), with more rapid transformation of this contaminant under anaerobic conditions than aerobic conditions. Removal of chlorine from aromatics generally occurs much more readily in anaerobic environments (via reductive dechlorination), which is an important consideration when bioremediation operations for heavily chlorinated compounds are being designed.