By Mark J. Girovich
This paintings info the commercial, regulatory and environmental safeguard concerns regarding biosolids administration and use. It evaluates present therapy applied sciences and administration ideas for the necessary usage of municipal wastewater residuals. fee information about the relative financial benefits of distinctive reuse and disposal equipment, is gifted.
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Extra info for Biosolids Treatment and Management (Environmental Science and Pollution Control, 18)
1-3). Potential revenue sources are: 1) sale of final products, and 2) sale of energy. Sale of bimlids derived products such as pellets and compost generally have higher revenue potential than other end products. ) Volume Reduction -1 signifcant Ti& I Mesophilic Aerobic Digestion Anaerobic Digestion I I Potential for Energy Recovery Pathogen Reduction No C1assB I I No No F i Reduction of Pollutants 1”. ) Treatment Pmcess Pasteurization Volume Reduction No Pathogen Reduction Class A Potentialfor Energy Recovery No I 1 Reductionof Pollutants I 1 No I ~~ Final Product Dewatered, ClassA I Capital cost O&M cost Low Medium No Low I 1 Low Linie/Alkaline Small Increase Class B No Yes’ Alkaline Stabilized Low Medium Irradiation No Class A No No Dewatered Biosolids, Class A No Data No Data No No Data Heat Drying for Autogenous Incineration or Land Application (40-80% TS) Significant Class A Significant No High Medium to High No Low to Heat Drying & Pelletizing (90% TS) High Class A Significant High Medium to High No Incineration Highest NIA High High to Very High High No Wet Air Oxidation No Class A Medium Medium No ~ I Potential No 1 I NIA Possible I I Dried Biosolids.
Pollutant h t s : pollutants should not exceed lirmts established by federal, state and local regulations. om processing facilities. ) for biosolids used on agricultural and nonagricultural land, sold to the general public, and used as a landfill cover material must also be met. 1. Pathogen Reduction Biosolids which are beneficially used should satisfy pathogen reduction requirements. Current US. S. S. S BENEFICIAL USES AND PRODUCTS 1. Land Application 2. 1-1 0 Stabilized Biosolids 3. 0 Iacinerahon m e r p v Rccov~y: SteamElectrictiy 4.
Environmental Impact Bimlids treatment impacts upon environmental, safety, and public health conditions hcludmg (butnot limitedto) air pollution, odors,liquid sidestreams,noise, siting, and public acceptance. , incineration) and, therefore, have a greater potential social, environmental and health impact. Processes with greater impact usually require higher capital (and often higher operating) costs and may experience difficulty in achieving public and regulatory support and approval. It is impossible to quant@ social, environmental and public health impact of differentprocesses,but Table 1- 10 attempts to provide a qualitative evaluation of such potential impacts.