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By Jean Perrin

Early reports by means of Einstein and Perrin supplied the various first proof for the lifestyles of molecules. Perrin, a Nobel Laureate, wrote this vintage to provide an explanation for his measurements of displaced debris of a resin suspended in water. It brought the idea that of Avogadro's quantity, besides different groundbreaking work. 1910 version.

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This was the first time that STS was used t o study vibrational characteristics of a single molecule. The evidence of C-H stretching mode was 3 Single Molecule Structural Characterization Fig. 27. 105]) obtained in the second-order derivative of the tunneling current, d 2 1 / d v 2 versus V characteristics. The acetylene molecule is stabilized on Cu surfaces through C-Cu bonds, with the C-H pointing outward from the Cu surface. A deuterium isotope effect was also confirmed in the tunneling spectrum.

In a similar study, molecular-induced imprints were identified on C u ( l l 0 ) at thc adsorption sitcs prcviously occupicd by hcxa-tcrt-butyl-dccacyclcnc (HtBDC, CsoHs6) molecules (Figs. 101]. 102]. 103]. The interaction between the central molecular board and the substrate causes the rotation of the attached legs. 104]. 105]. The Cu-O/Cu surface consists of periodic one-dimensional strips of bare Cu and reconstructed (2 x 1 ) - 0 regions. Fig. 25. 4 Single Hydrocarbon Molecules 55 Fig. 26. a, b STM observations showing Cu atoms being removed from the surface after the adsorption of HtBDC molecules at 41 K.

Site-dependent adsorption properties of single benzene molecules on A g ( l l 0 ) were studied by Pascual et al. 43]. 43]. Benzene molecules were observed t o adsorb a t the atop sites in open terraces with molecular planes parallel t o the surface a t about 30 K (Fig. 15). In addition, an asymmetric shape for benzene molecules was observed a t sites close to the corner of kink sites. The IETS study a t 4 K revealed significantly different characteristics for molecules a t the two tvpes of sites (Fig.

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