By Roger Harvey, Eric Sévigny
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The level and variability of seasonal snow hide are very important parameters within the weather procedure, as a result of their results on power and moisture budgets, and since floor temperature is extremely depending on snow disguise. In flip, snow conceal developments function key symptoms of weather swap. Many distinctive strategies became to be had to check snow-climate relationships.
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Some theories have provided insight into the complex coupling of the atmospheric and oceanic dynamics and thermodynamics which drive ENSO, but the explanation is not yet complete. There is some evidence (see Chapter 6) that high solar activity is associated with a La Niña–like response in tropical sea surface temperatures. Polar Modes At high latitudes the leading winter modes in the Northern Hemisphere are the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Pacific–North America Oscillation (PNA). These are sometimes viewed as part of the same phenomenon referred to as the Arctic Oscillation (AO), which is associated with variations throughout the lower atmosphere in the Northern Annular Mode (NAM).
The axes are in units of arcseconds (1 arcsec , 725 km). (SOT/Hinode/JAXA) (c) Part of the solar surface as seen by the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) with sunspots and faculae visible. The faculae are the numerous small, bright regions. The size of the image is approximately 53 × 53 Mm. , the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter on the Japanese Hinode spacecraft and the HMI instrument on SDO) now makes vector field measurements feasible. , Thomas and Weiss11). 3 (b) shows a typical example. The dark region (the umbra) measures 20 arcsec (~15,000 km—big enough to swallow the Earth).
A QUICK TOUR As a guide to the rest of this chapter, we summarize the structure of the Sun. 1 (a). 1 (a) A schematic of the solar atmosphere, showing the various regions discussed in this chapter. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) (b) Structure of the solar interior. The two curves starting at the upper left show the temperature and mass density as a function of distance from the center of the Sun. , y 4πr2 ρ(r) dr/Ms). (NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center). 42 THE SUN (b) shows the properties of the ionized gas (plasma) in the solar interior.