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By G. V. Chilingarian

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The conventional wisdom of the '60s and '70s was that most fresh water calcite cements tend toward equant shapes, while marine calcite and aragonite cements tend toward elongate fibrous shapes. Folk (1974) developeda model directly relating the morphology of calcite cements to the Mg/Ca ratio of the precipitational fluid. Folk's model was based on the concept of the sidewise poisoning of the growing calcite crystal by the substitution of the Mg ion for Ca. The smaller ionic radius of the Mg ion, relative to the Ca ion, causes lattice distortion at the edge of the growing crystal, stopping growth at the edge, and ultimately leading to the 48 DIAGENETIC ENVIRONMENTS AND TOOLS FOR THEIR RECOGNITION elongation of the crystal in the C-axis direction (Fig.

During this same evolutionary journey, porosity generating processes, which are dominantly diagenetic in nature, may also operate to increase the total pore volume of the evolving limestone. These processes are mainly of two types: 1)porosity generation by dissolution, and 2) porosity as a result of dolomitization. Fracturing, another important process, generally acts to increase permeability, rather than total pore volume. Secondary porosity formation by dissolution Dissolution of limestones and sediments may occur at any point in the burial history of the sequence (Chapter 9, Fig.

Mg-Calcite C a I c i t e 4 +Mg ' ' High- --- ' LOW- f rapid sideward growth slow sideward growth SEA WATER e _ - --Mg' MIXED FRESH WATER From Folk, 1974 Fig. 3. Calcite crystal growth habit as a funcrion of MglCa ratio. Used with permission ojSEPM. Lahann (1978), while agreeing with Folk that Mg could poison the growth of calcite due to lattice distortion, argued that the Mg poisoning effect could not be used to explain morphological differences in calcite crystals, because the Mg poisoning should affect all growing surfaces equally, including the C-axis direction.

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