By B. A., M. A., Ph.D. James L. Wilson (auth.)
Since 1950 geologists have discovered extra concerning the foundation and lithification of carbonate sediments than in all of the prior years of the heritage of technological know-how. this is often precise in all of the varied fields of carbonate geology: the research of modern environments, marine zoology and botany, natural geochemistry, hint aspect and isotope geochemistry, mineralogy, microfacies of depositional environments, and trace-fossil and sedimentary constitution research. A synthesis of this new wisdom is simply starting to be formulated. the aim of this quantity is to introduce the complicated pupil and petroleum explorationist largely to 1 vital element of this examine: to a few of the foundations of carbonate geology which can serve to interpret the depositional environments of historical strata and to raised outline their sequences and styles. bankruptcy I is a quick evaluation of ideas of carbonate sedimentation. (For a whole dialogue of the mineralogy, geochemistry, and diagenesis of carbonates besides a assessment of Holocene sediments, one may well seek advice from Bathurst's (1971) and Milliman's (1974) texts.) bankruptcy II reports stratigraphic and paleotectonic recommendations and discusses a basic version for carbonate deposition. bankruptcy III bargains an summary of carbonate petrography, focusing on lithologic descrip tion for the needs of environmental interpretation. For yet another assessment of this topic and ideal photomicrographs, Horowitz and Potter (1971) and Majewske (1969) can be used.
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Additional resources for Carbonate Facies in Geologic History
Il10). Stratigraphic Sequences, Geometry, and Facies of Carbonate Shelf Margins and Basins The basic carbonate facies model divides logically into two parts based on geometry and stratigraphic relations, degree of slope, and tectonic position: (1) Shelf margin complexes at the edges of major basins or along margins of major offshore banks within such basins, areas of considerable subsidence; and (2) Shelf strata laid down across flat cratonic areas in clear epeiric seas, areas of moderate subsidence.
9. Platform evaporite Jacies,' Supratidal and inland pond environment of the restricted marine platform developed in an evaporative climate-the areas of sabkha, salinas, salt flats. Intense heat and aridity is common, at least seasonally. Marine flooding is sporadic. Gypsum and anhydrite form from the evaporating sea water both as depositional and diagenetic sediment. 27 Discussion of Idealized Pattern ~ --~~. - . -~-S:;; ~ .... ~ . -. 7f7::;~2 . ~ ~ ..... v # J . • :::s:::: ~~-z-~ . , z 3@/*&ti ;~'" ..
Lamlnallon contrary rounded Orled. JnIY Red. )ello"'. brown chlc~enwlre. Almost no indigenous fauna. eJ:tePI (or stromalohlle algac Fig. 11-4 (continued) Discussion of Idealized Pattern The pattern of Fig. 11-4 results from a combination of effects of slope, geologic age, water energy, and climate, and as these vary, so will the patterns they control. Also, any ingress of terrigenous clastics will affect it. It is therefore obvious that no one example should include all nine facies belts. Clearly, for example, whether belt 1 or 2 occurs is dependent on whether the constructed carbonate bank or ramp rises from a deeper water euxinic basin or whether it rises above a shelf sea with open circulation.