By David Gillieson
This booklet is aimed toward scholars of the traditional atmosphere, however it also will entice these - cavers, environmental managers and box naturalists - who're interested in the underground international and its population. it really is illustrated all through with pictures, maps and line diagrams, just about all of that are unique to the booklet.
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Extra info for Caves: Processes, Development and Management (Natural Environment)
These will be explored further in the next chapter. There is some evidence to suggest that successive tiers of phreatic conduits are equally spaced in line with a Hagen-Poseuille flow net (Worthington 1991). 3 to 10 million years (Worthington 1991, 130) based on radiometric and palaeomagnetic dating, but eventually it will be abandoned owing to intrinsic changes such as blockage by sediments or extrinsic changes such as base level lowering or spring aggradation. 7). During the relatively short initiation phase, conduits are of small diameter and experience the transition from laminar to turbulent flow.
In recognition of the transient boundaries between some zones, the lowest portion of the vadose zone within the range of floodwater-level fluctuations is termed the epiphreatic zone (or temporary phreas). It is intermittently saturated. The lower phreatic zone, at depths of a few hundred metres, is termed the bathyphreatic zone. The lowest po'rtion of the phreatic zone, where water moves slowly in enlarging voids of varying size, is teoned the nothephreas or stagnant phreatic zone. Caves may be regarded as three-dimensional networks of conduits of varying size, from a few millimetres to tens of metres in diameter, which extend from inputs to outputs and transcend these zone boundaries, either at a single time or over the lifetime of a particular network.
Modified from Smart and Hobbs (1986). HYPERSENSITIVE KARST AQUIFERS VERY SENSITIVE KARST AQUIFERS MODERATELY SENSITIVE KARST AQUIFERS SLIGHTLY SENSITIVE NON - KARST AQUIFERS o NON· AQUIFERS 22 Cave Hydrology recharge, flow and storage for spring behaviour will be considered later. It is first necessary to define the three modes of water flow in the karst drainage system. 2. The movement of water in a homogeneous aquifer can be regarded as being at right angles to the contours of the water table or piezometric surface, and this surface of hydraulic equipotential lines can be mapped from borehole or well level data.