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By Maureen Warner-Lewis

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Indeed, the Koongo kingdom had been undermined from within and without, one result being that sub-kingdoms which previously acknowledged loyalty to the Koongo king eventually established 2 West Central Africa after European Contact their independence, and also sought to take control of one another. For example, by the eighteenth century Kakongo felt itself equal to Koongo, and Soyo claimed Ngoyo (Proyart 1776, 162). Indeed, since Kakongo, Ngoyo and Soyo were coastal, they had an advantage over land-locked Mbanza Koongo (in Mpemba province) in terms of access to foreign trade.

The St Lucian community of Piaye claims descent from, among some other African groups, "Congo", "Angola" and "Awanda" (Simmons 1963, 47). Given the other forms of Lunda, such as Ruund, Runda and Arunda (Redinha 1962, 14), perhaps it is this ethnic group Map 6 Ethnic groups in south-western Angola 19 Central Africa in the Caribbean from the hinterland, east of the Ndongo and Matamba in the upper Lulua plains, to which Awanda refers, by substitution of the bilabial glide [w] for the palato-alveolar glide [r].

Yet the demands of transcultural comparative study and investigation are daunting, with the result that insufficient work of this scope is as yet available to provide a groundwork for understanding the events, nature and processes of cultural contact and cultural engineering. xxxii &&&rtYtAft$Kf Be CuKo dial. emph. Eng f. fn. Fr FrCr gen. GuadKo GuyKo imp. indef. JC JaKo Ko m. Mb MKo My N n. NE neg. pers. pi. Po pr. Bembe Cuban Koongo dialect emphatic English feminine footnote French French Creole genitive Guadeloupe Koongo Guyana Koongo imperative indefinite Jamaican Creole Jamaica Koongo Koongo masculine Mbundu Martinique Koongo Mayombe northern Koongo noun north-eastern Koongo negator person plural Portuguese pronoun xxxiii Abbreviations Pr2 Pr3 S SB sg.

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