By B. Trémillon
Arising doubtless from its pre-eminence as a normal liquid, water has regularly been thought of by way of chemists because the unique solvent during which very diversified chemical reactions can ensue, either for preparational and for analytical reasons. This explains the very long-standing curiosity proven within the research of aqueous recommendations. during this con nection, it has to be under pressure that the idea of Arrhenius and Ostwald (1887-1894) on electrolytic dissociation, used to be initially devised completely for recommendations in water and that the 1st real inspiration of acidity as a result of this can be associated with using this solvent. The more moderen improvement of various physico-chemical size tools has made attainable a rise of information during this zone as much as a really complicated measure of systematization. hence at the present time we now have on hand either a truly great amount of experimental facts, including very sophisticated tools of deduction and of quantitative remedy of chemical reactions in resolution which permit us to make the fullest use of this knowledge. however, . it sounds as if rather obtrusive at the present that there are many chemical methods which can't occur in water, and that its use as a solvent imposes 2 advent obstacles. with a view to conquer those barriers, it used to be typical that curiosity will be interested in solvents except water and that the recent chances therefore unfolded might be explored.
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Extra info for Chemistry in Non-Aqueous Solvents
THEORY OF ION-PAIR FORMATION In solutions of lowest dielectric constant, where ionic dissociation therefore remains very small, the ionic strength of the electrolytic solutions cannot reach high values. The conductivity of these solutions remains low also, even when the electrolyte is concentrated. The essential factor controlling the phenomenon of ion-pair formation therefore appears to be the dielectric constant e of the solvent. Electrostatic Coulomb forces between ions of opposite sign, their magnitude increasing inversely as B, are responsible for this.
A great number of metal-salt systems where the salt is molten have been studied experimentally at the present time, particularly from the point of view of phase equilibrium (cf. Bredig, 1964). The solubility of metals varies greatly, depending on the system and on the temperature. ) When miscibility is not total, two immiscible liquid phases molten salt saturated with metal and metal saturated with molten salt - can appear. Bredig has shown that two categories of solution can be distinguished, depending on the state of the metal dissolved in the molten salt.
A quantitative treatment of the reactions between acids and bases - leading to the combination of the hydrogen ions of the acid with the hydroxide anions of the base, to form molecules of water - based on the laws of chemical equilibria, then became possible. The idea of 'neutrality', the result of 'neutralization' of an acid by a base or vice versa was introduced. As far as aqueous solutions are concerned, this theory of Arrhenius showed itself to be satisfactory and completely acceptable. But it appeared inadequate when interest started to be taken in solvents other than water, and when attempts were made to rationalize the properties of acids and bases in all solvents.