By Michael J. McGuire
Might be no different development of public future health has been as major. but, few understand the exciting tale of an easy idea-disinfecting public water structures with chlorine-that in precisely a hundred years has kept extra lives than the other unmarried future health improvement in human background.
At the flip of the twentieth century, so much scientists and medical professionals referred to as the addition of chloride of lime, a toxic chemical, to public water offers not just a preposterous suggestion but in addition an unlawful act - until eventually a brave health practitioner, Dr. John L. Leal, operating with George W. Fuller, the era's maximum sanitary engineer, proved it may be performed accurately and successfully on a wide scale.
This is the 1st publication to inform the tremendous precise tale of the 1st use of chlorine to disinfect a urban water offer, in Jersey urban, New Jersey, in 1908. this significant publication additionally corrects incorrect information long-held within the historic checklist approximately who used to be liable for this momentous occasion, giving past due popularity to the genuine hero of the story-an unflagging champion of public healthiness, Dr. John L. Leal
Read Online or Download Chlorine Revolution, The: The History of Water Disinfection and the Fight to Save Lives PDF
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Extra resources for Chlorine Revolution, The: The History of Water Disinfection and the Fight to Save Lives
Haines, noted economist at Colgate University, observed that before 1920, the mortality of urban dwellers was far higher than the mortality of people living in rural areas. In 1900, for example, the life expectancy of rural white males was 10 years higher than that of urban white males. 4 years in 1930. 6 years. 34 For infants, the penalty for urban living was far worse. In 1890, excess mortality for urban infants (compared with the mortality of rural infants) was 88 percent. By 1900, it had dropped to 48 percent, and it declined further through the early twentieth century.
The water supply from the Merrimack River was grossly contaminated with sewage. By 1896, Lowell had changed its water source from the river to a series of wells that tapped an uncontaminated supply. The 1903 epidemic occurred when river water from a system supplying industrial water was used to fight a fire, and a valve separating the potable supply from the fire-fighting supply failed. 53 More than fifteen years later in Peabody, Massachusetts, 1,500 people were sickened during a virulent waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis.
The plan was submitted to the mayor and city council in 1855. 86 It was not until two years later that consulting engineer Julius W. 87 As part of his plan, Chesbrough considered four options for sewage disposal. ”88 The first option was deemed the best and least costly. However, the fourth option was eventually implemented when the flow of the Chicago River was reversed in 1900. The choice not to implement the third option was based on the miasma theory of disease. . ”90 Sewers were dutifully constructed according to Chesbrough’s plan, and most of the foul wastes were dumped into the Chicago River.