By Carmen de Jong, David N. Collins, Roberto Ranzi
A finished evaluation of interaction of the significant hydrological and meteorological methods in mountain components ie Cryosphere and Climatic swap, Snow soften and Soil Water, Run-off and Floods, Water fluxes and Water stability, Hydro-meteorological Coupling and Modelling. every one part will review recent learn within the box and illustrate key interactions with case stories from mountainous areas in Europe, The Americas and principal Asia.
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6) and the snow cover ratio of surrounding ground as L ↓ = L ↓ fv + L ↑ (1 − fv ). 3 Turbulent ﬂuxes For the calculation of the turbulent ﬂuxes, the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory was followed, as formulated by Brutsaert (1982). This method calculates heat and vapour transfer from their gradients between surface and measurement heights, taking into consideration wind speed, air density, stability correction, and so on, and accounts for the surface roughness by introducing an aerodynamic roughness length, z0 .
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Meteorol. 40: 753–761. , Ageta, Y. and Nakawo, M. (1996) Runoff modeling of a river basin with a debris-covered glaciers in Langtang Valley, Nepal Himalaya. Bull. Glacier Res. 14: 1–6. , Fukushima, Y. and Ageta, Y. (1997) Application of a conceptual precipitation-runoff model (HYCYMODEL) in a debris-covered glacierized basin in the Langtang Valley, Nepal Himalaya. Ann. Glaciol. 25: 226–231. Reeh, N. (1991) Parameterization of melt rate and surface temperature on the Greenland ice sheet. Polarforschung 59(3): 113–128.