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78 (1993) 93-100. [14] K. Kimmerle and H. Strathmann, Analysis of the structure-determining process of phase inversion membranes, Desalination, 79 (1990) 283-302. [15] I. F. Wang, USP 5869174, 1999. [16] W. J. Wrasidlo, USP 4629563, 1986. [17] A. J. Reuvers, J. W. A. van den Berg, and C. A. Smolders, Formation of membranes by means of immersion precipitation. part I. a model to describe mass transfer during immersion precipitation, J. , 34 (1987) 45-65. [18] A. J. Reuvers and C. A. Smolders, Formation of membranes by means of immersion precipitation.

The transition region to lower fluxes is equally sharp for all permeation characteristics. Currently, we do not have an explanation at hand. 1. 7 clearly shows that two modules have a comparable copper flux as well as the flux decline dynamics. 6 Influence of NMP concentration in the bore liquid on water, gas (nitrogen) and copper permeation. 6wt%. 2) for transport of copper ions. A second concern with respect to this new support fiber is the chemical stability of the material. A reimpregnation test has been performed to determine whether the flux decline is related to a potential degradation of the polymeric 34 Polysulfone hollow fibers for supported liquid membranes support, either by the organic solvents or by the feed and strip solutions.

The fiber integrity is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on these experiments, detailed characterization of the coagulation behavior of the coating material is performed and the obtained membranes are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Co-casting of flat-sheet membranes addresses the critical issue of layer adhesion in order to identify recipes that can be further applied during co-extrusion. Finally, co-extruded membranes are tested with respect to their gas separation, ion retention and liquid membrane extraction performances.

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