By Alec Groysman
This booklet addresses corrosion difficulties and their suggestions at amenities within the oil refining and petrochemical undefined, together with cooling water and boiler feed water devices. extra, it describes and analyzes corrosion keep watch over activities, corrosion tracking, and corrosion administration. Corrosion difficulties are a perennial factor within the oil refining and petrochemical undefined, as they result in a deterioration of the useful homes of metal gear and damage the surroundings – either one of which have to be safe for the sake of present and destiny generations. hence, this booklet examines and analyzes commonplace and extraordinary corrosion failure situations and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical amenities, together with issues of: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, warmth exchangers, and pumps. moreover, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, pressure corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically precipitated corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion fatigue happening at refinery devices. finally, fouling, corrosion and cleansing are mentioned during this book.
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Extra info for Corrosion Problems and Solutions in Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry
Only in the downstream separator fully condensed aqueous phase will be alkali. 1 Low-Temperature Corrosion 27 In addition to corrosion problems, NH4HS and NH4Cl salts can cause fouling problems (see Chap. 7). Solid NH4Cl salt can be formed directly from NH3 and HCl which are present in the effluent stream, depending on their concentrations and temperatures. These two salts can deposit at T > 100 °C. Dry NH4Cl salt is not corrosive but can create signiﬁcant fouling problems. ‘Dryʼ is deﬁned as solid salt in equilibrium with a vapor phase with less than 10 % relative humidity .
Crude oil after desalter flowed in the shell at 140–190 °C and 12 bar. Material of construction. 70. 5 mm. Service period before the failure: 2 years. The heat exchanger was ﬁlled with crude oil and has not been worked during 8 months among 2 years of service. Visual examination and ﬁndings. Deposits and pits of 6–7 mm in deepness were found on inner surface of the lower part of the shell (Fig. 1). 5 mm/year. Analysis of salt content in crude oil after the desalter showed that during 2 years these values changed in the range 2–6 ptb when allowable maximum concentration is 1 ptb.
EIP can be determined by measuring the electrical conductivity of the emulsion. At and above the EIP, a continuous (separate) phase of water or free water is present. Therefore, there is a potential for corrosion. (b) The wettability of the steel surface. Whether water phase can cause corrosion in the presence of oil depends on whether the surface is oil-wet (hydrophobic) or water-wet (hydrophilic). Because of higher electrical resistance, an oil-wet metal surface is not susceptible to corrosion, but a water-wet surface is.