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By Valerie J. Bunce, Sharon L. Wolchik

From 1998 to 2005, six elections came about in postcommunist Europe and Eurasia that had the astounding final result of empowering the competition and defeating authoritarian incumbents or their detailed successors. Valerie J. Bunce and Sharon L. Wolchik examine those unforeseen electoral breakthroughs - with each other and with elections that had the extra ordinary results of retaining authoritarian rule. They draw 3 conclusions. First, the competition used to be positive end result of the difficult and inventive paintings of a transnational community composed of neighborhood competition and civil society teams, participants of the foreign democracy tips neighborhood, and graduates of winning electoral demanding situations to authoritarian rule in different nations. moment, the notable run of those disillusioned elections mirrored the facility of this community to diffuse an ensemble of leading edge electoral techniques throughout nation barriers. ultimately, elections can function a robust mechanism for democratic switch. this is often specifically the case whilst civil society is powerful, the move of political energy is thru constitutional capacity, and competition leaders win with small mandates.

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Tarrow, “From Lumping to Splitting: Specifying Globalization and Resistance,” in Globalization and Resistance: Transnational Dimensions of Social Movements, ed. ” 47 Wade Jacoby, “Inspiration, Coalition and Substitution: External Influences on Postcommunist Transformations,” World Politics 58:4 (July 2006), 623–651. ” 20 Part I. The Puzzle the horizontal dynamic implied in the very idea of diffusion – that is, the movement of an innovation from one site to others – would be absent. What makes selection among these alternative interpretations even more difficult is the reliance in many diffusion studies on evidence that establishes commonalities among sites that enhance their joint receptivity to importing the same innovation.

The other bias is that the term color or electoral revolutions has been used in quite political ways. Just as some participants in these elections like to use the term to dramatize their accomplishments, so authoritarians, eager to defend their power against the “electoral virus,” adopt the terminology of revolution in order to accomplish two self-serving objectives: to persuade allies, oppositions, and citizens that such electoral challenges are both unnatural, because they result from the illegitimate interventions of “outsiders,” and dangerous, because they produce political chaos.

20 Part I. The Puzzle the horizontal dynamic implied in the very idea of diffusion – that is, the movement of an innovation from one site to others – would be absent. What makes selection among these alternative interpretations even more difficult is the reliance in many diffusion studies on evidence that establishes commonalities among sites that enhance their joint receptivity to importing the same innovation. This study is well positioned to address two other aspects of diffusion that have received insufficient attention.

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