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By Julie Laity

Taking a world viewpoint, this ebook offers a concise review of drylands, together with their actual, organic, temporal, and human elements.

* Examines the actual platforms happening in desolate tract environments, together with weather, hydrology, prior and current lakes, weathering, hillslopes, geomorphic surfaces, water as a geomorphic agent, and aeolian tactics
* deals an available creation to the actual, organic, temporal, and human elements of drylands
* Investigates the character, environmental standards, and crucial geomorphic roles of vegetation and animals during this tense organic surroundings
* Highlights the influence of human inhabitants development on weather, desertification, water assets, and dirt typhoon job
* comprises an exam of surface/atmosphere interactions and the effect of ENSO events.

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Sample text

The sediment loads of the Luni River are large, and post-flood deposits were as much as 20–60 cm in depth (Kale et al. 2000). Sand dunes cover much of the Thar, with sediment supplied from the coastline, the alluvial plains, and the weathering of sandstones and granites. Close to the coast, the dunes may be highly calcareous and cemented, forming aeolianites (calcarenites), or lithified sand dunes. Inland, quartz sands dominate, although foraminiferal tests may still be found (Goudie & Sperling 1977).

The first evidence of aridity is in the Oligocene (Sarnthein 1978) and, from the Pliocene to the present, Saharan and Arabian climates have alternated between subhumid and arid (Williams 1994). Periods of greater moisture are recorded by fluvial landforms, soil development, the appearance of lakes and marshes, changes in flora and fauna, tufa deposition and archaeological sites. Arid phases are evidenced by lake desiccation and deflation, fragmentation of fluvial systems, and increased aeolian activity (Oberlander 1994; Haynes 2001; Nicoll 2004).

On the border of the Caspian Sea, the world’s largest lake, the annual precipitation is 156–177 mm (Walter & Box 1983a). In winter, the Siberian high-pressure system causes 29 very cold temperatures, from −30°C on the coast to −40°C inland. Summers bring hot weather (maxima up to 40°C) and dust storms that cause extensive damage to cultivated land. At times during the Pleistocene, the lowland area was under water, with a connection through to the Sea of Azov. 5 m BSL) at the surface of the Caspian Sea.

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