By Max Horkheimer
Yet the paintings is going a long way past a trifling critique of up to date occasions. traditionally distant advancements, certainly, the beginning of Western heritage and of subjectivity itself out of the fight opposed to ordinary forces, as represented in myths, are attached in a large arch to the main threatening stories of the current.
The ebook is composed in 5 chapters, at the start look unconnected, including a few shorter notes. a number of the analyses hindrance such phenomena because the detachment of technology from sensible existence, formalized morality, the manipulative nature of leisure tradition, and a paranoid behavioral constitution, expressed in competitive anti-Semitism, that marks the boundaries of enlightenment. The authors understand a typical aspect in those phenomena, the tendency towards self-destruction of the guiding standards inherent in enlightenment suggestion from the start. utilizing old analyses to clarify the current, they express, opposed to the heritage of a prehistory of subjectivity, why the nationwide Socialist terror used to be no longer an aberration of contemporary historical past yet used to be rooted deeply within the basic features of Western civilization.
Adorno and Horkheimer see the self-destruction of Western cause as grounded in a ancient and fateful dialectic among the domination of exterior nature and society. They hint enlightenment, which break up those spheres aside, again to its legendary roots. Enlightenment and fantasy, for this reason, will not be irreconcilable opposites, yet dialectically mediated features of either actual and highbrow lifestyles. "Myth is already enlightenment, and enlightenment reverts to mythology." This paradox is the elemental thesis of the book.
This new translation, in response to the textual content within the entire variation of the works of Max Horkheimer, includes textual editions, observation upon them, and a piece of writing dialogue of the placement of this paintings within the improvement of severe Theory.
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Additional info for Dialectic of Enlightenment
We have confined ourselves here to correcting misprints and suchlike matters. This restraint has made the book a piece of documentation; we hope that it is also more. Max Horkheimer Theodor W. Adorno Frankfurt am Main, April 1969 Preface to the Italian Edition* (1962/1966) The German text of Dialectic of Enlightenment is a fragment. Begun as early as 1941, during the Second World War, it was supposed to form the introduction to the theory of society and history we had sketched during the period of National Socialist rule.
But the sanctity of the hic et nunc, the uniqueness of the chosen victim which coincides with its representative status, distinguishes it radically, makes it non-exchangeable even in the exchange. Science puts an end to this. In it there is no specific representation: something which is a sacrificial animal cannot be a god. Representation gives way to universal fungibility. An atom is smashed not as a representative but as a specimen of matter, and the rabbit suffering the torment of the laboratory is seen not as a representative but, mistakenly, as a mere exemplar.
In being dependent on the limits set to knowledge, it is itself limited. The attempt made by faith under Protestantism to locate the principle of truth, which transcends faith and without which faith cannot exist, directly in the word itself, as in primeval times, and to restore the symbolic power of the word, was paid for by obedience to the word, but not in its sacred form. Because faith is unavoidably tied to knowledge as its friend or its foe, faith perpetuates the split in the struggle to overcome knowledge: its fanaticism is the mark of its untruth, the objective admission that anyone who only believes for that reason no longer believes.